Memories of VMI: Volume I

Stonewall Jackson, VMI’s Most Embattled Professor
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Our study extended the paradigm of Jakubowski et al.

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In this VMI task, participants were prompted via text message to imagine the same section of a tune that had previously been reported as INMI, tap to the beat of the tune while wearing the accelerometer, and record information about the VMI experience in a diary. The primary aims of our study were to test: 1 the accuracy of tempo recall within INMI versus VMI, as compared to the original tempo for songs that have a definitive, recorded version, and 2 emotional responses to the same music experienced as INMI versus VMI.

Predictions related to each of these aims, as informed by existing literature, are discussed below. The present study is the first to compare recall accuracy between involuntary and voluntary musical memories within the same paradigm and same participants. In the autobiographical memory domain, one study has revealed similar subjective ratings for the accuracy of details when comparing IAMs to VAMs for different autobiographical events Mace et al.

In the musical memory literature, previous evidence accumulated across three separate studies Jakubowski et al. In musical imagery, heightened reliving could manifest as increased vividness of the mental image, and perhaps a more veridical mental representation.

More generic representations of musical memories could result in a decrease in veridicality, thus leading to less accurate tempo recall within VMI in comparison to INMI. The present design will also take account of recent hearing of a piece of music as a potential confounding variable that could influence accuracy of tempo recall in both the INMI and VMI tasks.

Participants Twenty participants were recruited on the basis that they reported experiencing INMI at least a few times per day on average. Procedure The study was advertised via posters and word-of-mouth. Tempo data from original recordings For tunes reported as INMI that had a corresponding canonical version i. Open image in new window.

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These results are visualized in Fig. It is evident from these data that some doubling or halving of tapped tempo may have occurred between the two imagery conditions, as the beat of the same musical stimulus can often be perceived at different metrical levels e.

If this analysis is recalculated such that the INMI tempo data is transformed to map onto the closest metrical level to the VMI tempo i. The tempo of these imagery episodes was compared to the original, recorded tempo of each tune see Fig. The mean ratio of INMI tempo to the original tempo was 0. The median degree of absolute deviation from the original, recorded tempo was 9. As in the previous analyses, the data in Fig.

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When the INMI and VMI tempo data are transformed to match the metrical levels designated by the researchers for the original tempo, 10 the median absolute deviation from the original tempo for INMI is 7. As accuracy of tempo recall may also be affected by how recently a tune has been heard aloud, self-report ratings of recency of hearing were also included as a predictor in this model. Results indicated no significant effect of task or recency of hearing on deviation from the original tempo and no significant interaction between these two predictors 11 see Table 1 , suggesting a generally equivalent level of tempo recall accuracy for INMI and VMI that is not influenced by how recently a tune has been heard aloud.

If the same analysis is performed using the ratio of tapped to original tempo as the dependent variable a relative measure that treats over- and under-estimation of tempo separately rather than the absolute deviation from the original tempo, the same pattern of results holds, with no significant effect of task t Predictor Estimate Standard error Degrees of freedom t-value p-value Intercept 0. No significant effect of musical training was found on tempo recall accuracy and no significant interaction was found between musical training and task, suggesting that less musically trained participants did not demonstrate less accurate imagined tempo representations in either imagery task than trained musicians.

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Pearson correlations were computed for each individual participant to compare instances of the same tune as experienced as INMI versus VMI in terms of valence and arousal ratings. However, the range of these correlations also indicated a large degree of individual differences between participants in terms of whether INMI and VMI for the same tune occurred during similar mood states range for valence correlations: -. Predictor Estimate Standard error Degrees of freedom t-value p-value Intercept 4. Predictor Estimate Standard error Degrees of freedom t-value p-value Intercept 3.

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Applied Cognitive Psychology , 12 4 , A dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Review , 4 , Eerola, T. Emotional expression in music: Contribution, linearity, and additivity of primary musical cues. Frontiers in psychology, 4. Google Scholar. Eschrich, S. Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music. BMC Neuroscience , 9 1 , Faul, F.

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Twice random, once mixed: Applying mixed models to simultaneously analyze random effects of language and participants. Behavior Research Methods , 44 1 , Johannessen, K.

go to link Current concerns in involuntary and voluntary autobiographical memories. Consciousness and Cognition , 19 4 , Kvavilashvili, L. When do Christmas songs pop into your mind? Testing a long-term priming hypothesis. Cognitive Psychology , 48 1 , Levitin, D. Memory for musical tempo: Additional evidence that auditory memory is absolute. Liikkanen, L. Musical activities predispose to involuntary musical imagery.

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Applied Cognitive Psychology , 25 1 , McKinney, M. Ambiguity in tempo perception: What draws listeners to different metrical levels?