Culture : From Primitive Society to the Space Age

When the Space Age Blasted Off, Pop Culture Followed
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The planet does not need to be colonized in order to uplift the native pre-sapient species, but the star system where the planet is located must be within the empire's borders. Uplifting a species requires the Epigenetic Triggers technology and costs society Research. Finishing an uplift also grants influence. When an uplift is complete, the pre-sapient species receive the default species rights according to the host empire, even if it is displacement from their own home.

These events can only take place on colonies that contain pre-sapients that are not being uplifted. They cannot happen in the first 10 years of a game. However, enlightenment will also mean transferring the starbase to the new empire, along with every station built in the system, as well as any planets undergoing colonization and those previously colonized.

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Protectorates can be integrated without having to wait for them to catch up technologically. Technologically enlightening and uplifting Pre-FTL societies can also be useful from a purely pragmatic standpoint as there are a number of special traits that can only be found on Pre-Sapient species that come with very good bonuses that could be a very useful asset to an interstellar empire. Uplifting the Pre-sapients allows you to get your hands on those valuable traits by turning them into usable pops of your empire which retain the traits and can then be put to good use.

These special traits can only be found on Pre-FTL pops and cannot be obtained through any other means, not even through advanced gene-modding. Uplifting the species will also give them the Uplifted Trait which makes them happier when living within your empire, which is nice extra bonus. From Stellaris Wiki. This article is considered accurate for the current version 2. Game concepts. Categories : 2. Namespaces Main Console Discussion.

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It was the neo-evolutionary thinkers who brought back evolutionary thought and developed it to be acceptable to contemporary anthropology. Selection is always further restricted by exogamy rules. In the 19th and 20th centuries, these ideas were put to sinister use as European nations expanded their colonies in Indigenous lands. Medical practice in these civilizations is described succinctly after elucidating the historical background and the major aspects of the religion of these cultures. They consist of people of similar age and usually of the same gender who share a common identity and maintain close ties throughout their lives. Many [ who? In his classic Ancient Societies , Lewis H.

This civilization is currently in the equivalent of a Stone Age. They have mastered fire and developed a rudimentary spoken language, but we have yet to see any evidence of metallurgy or written communication. This civilization is currently in the equivalent of a Bronze Age. Primitive metalworking and the first written languages have appeared, while cities and larger communities are taking shape.

This civilization is currently in the equivalent of an Iron Age. They have spread across most of their homeworld, while iron smelting and forging techniques have enabled them to forge crude but effective tools and weaponry. This civilization is currently experiencing the equivalent of a Late Medieval Age. They have a firm grasp of metallurgy, and the invention of the printing press has started to benefit the spread of knowledge.

This civilization is currently experiencing the equivalent of a Renaissance Age. Scientific knowledge is increasing at a rapid rate, and the invention of gunpowder has revolutionized warfare. This civilization is currently in the equivalent of a Steam Age.

The invention of the steam engine has had far-reaching effects on their society and they stand on the cusp of an industrial revolution. This civilization has advanced into the equivalent of an early Industrial Age. Electricity and internal combustion engines are gradually coming into widespread use, while urbanization increases at a rapid pace.

This civilization has advanced into the equivalent of a Machine Age, considered a later part of the Industrial Age.

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Their factories are mass-producing goods and vehicles, and air travel is becoming commonplace. This civilization has advanced into the equivalent of an Atomic Age. They have harnessed the power of the atom, but not yet made it into space. Nuclear weapons may be prolific, and could result in a sudden extinction event.

e-book Culture : From Primitive Society to the Space Age

This civilization has entered an Early Space Age. Primitive satellites are orbiting their homeworld, and the first manned space missions have been concluded in low orbit. They will soon be ready to leave their world. Passive Observation. The natives are studied unknowingly from a safe distance and every effort is made to avoid cultural contamination. Aggressive Observation. The natives are aggressively studied and live specimens are frequently collected to learn as much as possible about their biology and culture.

Technological Enlightenment. An effort is made to rapidly elevate the native civilization to the space age. The time this takes is dependent on their current level of technology. As in other ancient cultures, the two paradigms do not differ in outcome and the benefit of medical treatment is mostly due to placebo effect and autosuggestion.

Chapter IV —Egyptian Medicine. In this chapter, Egyptian history, philosophy, religion, science, and technology are thoroughly discussed. Mummification carried out for religious reasons actually influenced medical practice with the search and use of drugs, resulting in the attainment of rudimentary knowledge of human anatomy and pharmacopeia. Egyptian medicine had some influence on the development of Greek naturalistic medicine as discussed in Volume II of this series. Physiology, as in the case with Hindu medicine, was based on imaginary and fanciful notions, but the Egyptian physicians, unlike all other ancient medical practitioners, did develop a unique pathophysiological concept that will be further discussed later in this review.

Chapter V — Mesopotamian Medicine. Mythology, history, science, and technology, including the development of writing, mathematics, astrology, and astronomy are described, providing a comprehensive background for the development of ancient Mesopotamian medicine. This discussion includes the most salient aspects of the medical and public health practices of the Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian Chaldean civilizations.

Primitive culture

Medical practice in these civilizations is described succinctly after elucidating the historical background and the major aspects of the religion of these cultures. For example, Persian medicine is discussed in the context of Zoroastrianism and the influence of the learned magi; Biblical medicine in relation to Hebrew practices, the tenets of Judaism, and the religious teachings and injunctions of the prophets of the Old Testament; the Pre-Columbian medicine of the Incas of Peru, the Mayas of Central America, and the Aztecs of Mexico, as it relates to their ritualistic use of tobacco, psychoactive drugs, their cosmology, and the Meso-American insatiable thirst for human sacrifice, particularly in the Aztec culture.

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Primitive medicine all over the world first used a supernaturalistic paradigm to explain diseases, injuries, and death. This means that diseases, injuries, and death did not occur at random but were caused by evil deities, offended gods or malevolent demons; violations of taboos; or produced by wicked enemies using magic or sorcery. Treatment therefore was directed toward appeasing deities, using magic and religion with witch-doctors and sorcerers, shamans and priests, and eventually physicians and ancient surgeons.

Cultural Anthropology/Ritual and Religion

In time, because of the perceived shortcomings in the supernaturalistic paradigm or because of major crises in the old religions, a new naturalistic nonscientific paradigm was developed to deal with the new existing conditions. This new paradigm attributed diseases to natural causes and not the direct intervention of gods or demons. Therefore natural remedies were sought — i. In Greece, as discussed in Volume II of this series, [ 3 ] the naturalistic nonscientific approach was ushered in by Hippocrates of Cos c.

But in Egypt, this paradigm was developed much earlier as evinced by the remarkable knowledge of medicine and surgery discussed in the Edwin Smith B.

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The evidence supports the view that Egyptian physicians were able to treat fracture dislocations, drain abscesses, and perform minor operations centuries earlier than the Mesopotamians, ancient Chinese, or Greeks — using in some cases mostly a naturalistic nonscientific approach to illness and injury.

In the context of Biblical medicine, it should be pointed out that Hebrew medicine is the only ancient medical system in which supernaturalistic medicine is found strictly within a monotheistic theology except perhaps for the Zoroastrian religion and in this same religious context, it is completely and uniquely devoid of other supernaturalistic practices, such as sorcery and demonology, as these practices were strictly forbidden and punishable by death. In all other ancient societies, supernaturalistic medical practitioners included physicians and frequently priests , sorcerers, quacks and magicians, virtually ministering side by side.

This was not allowed in the Biblical medicine of Israel, where only priests and prophets practiced medicine; physicians practicing naturalistic medicine were low on the social scale and consulted only as a last resort. Prioreschi takes the time to also expound on the Judaic dichotomy as to the immortality of the soul, a dichotomy that separates Jews to this day.

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While in ancient Israel religion was all-important, in China there was no major theology and consequently no state religion. Nevertheless, competing school of philosophies abound, trying to fill in the gap. Supernaturalistic features were nevertheless present from the spiritual world haunting ancient Chinese society. Evil deities affected the world as well as the spirits of ancestors emanating inauspiciously from the cult of ancestor worship and had to be propitiated to avoid bad luck, illness, and death.

The use of Dreckapotheke was very common in China and in India but it was fairly widespread throughout the ancient world; with the advent of Buddhism, the Four Element doctrine was introduced in China, modified, and became an important feature of Chinese naturalistic medicine. And this brings us to another salient point in Prioreschi's thesis, namely the amazing similarities in the fanciful physiological systems the ancient physicians developed in an attempt to explain illnesses and rationalize therapeutics.

These similarities were the result of necessary selection from the very limited options available to the ancient physicians. Selecting the most rational option to categorize diseases and institute treatment invariably led to the nearly universal concordance of certain features.

For example, one was the need to preserve the balance among several elements and restore the equilibrium of these elements or humors in the body to preserve health or cure illness. Another was the widespread use of laxatives, purgatives, and enemas. The study of the pulse was yet another, particularly for the Chinese and Greeks.

The posited four classical elements of the universe led to the cosmogenic theory that was embraced by many ancient cultures. The four primordial elements were earth, water, fire, and air or wind. The theory was formally propounded by the pre-Socratic Greek philosopher Empedocles c. As we will see in Volume II, the cosmogenic theory of the four elements provided the basis for the theory of the Four Humors of ancient Greek medicine. This Humoral theory, developed in the School of Cos in which Hippocrates played a central role, posited that an imbalance of the four humors — blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile — of the body resulted in disease and illness.

To the theory of the four elements, the ancient Chinese independently modified and added another element i.