Thirteenth-century works with musical interpolations 23 1. Lost medieval sources with music 24 1. Songs in measured notation 29 1.
Troubadour and trouvere songs surviving in motets 31 3. Moncrif's imitations of Thibaut de Champagne's songs 3. Sources of pseudo-medieval selections in Laborde's 'Choix de chansons' in his Essai , vol. Those who have undertaken such a project at an institution not primarily designed for research can appreciate the measure of my gratitude not only towards head librarian Kimmetha Herndon but especially to two inter-library loan specialists, Karen Simpkins and Julie Harwell.
With unfailing cheer and persistence, Karen and Julie bore the weight of my many inter-library loan requests, often at the rate of several items a day. I would also like to thank Harold Newman, provost of the college, for a summer travel stipend in the summer of I certainly could not have finished this book in time without the help of Anna Davis, my research assistant at Shorter for three years, whose diligent work is scattered throughout the following pages. I would also like to thank the staff of the Robert Woodruff, Pitts Theology and Heilbrun Music and Media libraries at Emory University in Atlanta, who helped me during my frequent visits there.
Amount and quality of research is often at the mercy of individuals as well as grant committees, and my own research profited from several beyond those already mentioned. I would like to first thank Michel Laisne of the Dieppe Mediatheque Municipale for sending me a newspaper clip- ping in April of which it could be fairly said that it launched this book into existence.
That same year, Jacques Chailley kindly confirmed my suspicions surrounding Pierre Aubry's death; my only regret is that I was unable to thank him in person before his own passing.
I am also grateful to Marie-Louise Lippincott and Thomas Dalzell, daughter and grandson of Jean Beck, for sharing invaluable information with me. I spent the summer of working at the University of Gottingen, thanks to a Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst stipend. Gottingen's XI xii Acknowledgements outstanding collection of early modern books helped me lay the founda- tion for chapters 2 and 3, and I could not have begun or pursued detailed work on Friedrich Ludwig's Nachlafi without the untiring help of librarian Barbel Mund. Over the last five years, I have become especially indebted to the efficient staff at the Bibliotheque nationale de France.
At the Bibliotheque de lArsenal, I profited from Danielle Muzerelle's exper- tise in many areas, including eighteenth-century watermarks. Finally, in the summer of a National Endowment for the Arts summer fellowship enabled me to complete the finishing touches on the book in Paris.
Of these, this book owes its greatest debt to Elizabeth Aubrey's model work and her unstinting generosity and to Robert Lug's hospitality and insight. It was a happy coincidence which led Mark Taylor to Berry College in the autumn of , thus making possible many musico- literary discussions on the troubadours in the unlikely setting of north-west Georgia. Mark Everist and Robert Lug critiqued drafts of this book, for which I am deeply grateful. I would also like to thank David Ogborn and Jamie Younkin for their assistance with the musical examples and figures.
My first and last acknowledgement is reserved for my dear friend and wife Dorothy Haines whom I thank for her companionship and continuing education in writing and the English language - essential ingredients to my completing this book. At best, my immoderate curiosity about a footnote-sized anecdote might grow into a single publication of interest to a handful of medieval musicologists old enough to remember some vague story about two scholars who nearly duelled in It did. My article relating these findings was published in , and I assumed then that I would promptly leave behind this dust on academic dust for more important research directly related to medieval music.
The var- ious details shaped a longer narrative which began to answer another ques- tion that had occurred to me before my interest in the Beck-Aubry affair: why was rhythm considered so important in medieval song?
In reading the secondary literature on the troubadours and trouveres, I found that the issue of rhythm frequently came up; the topic was either lengthily discussed mostly earlier writers or cautiously avoided mostly recent writers. Either way, the 'rhythm question' loomed over the subject of French medieval song, and few stopped to ask why, although many wrote to explain how. Finding out why rhythm had taken on such importance - and ultimately the whole explanation of Aubry s death - took me back further than even the early nineteenth century, and eventually reaching the Middle Ages, the begin- ning point of both medieval music and its reception.
Vital Health Statistics Series 11, No. Franco of Cologne's An cantus mensurabilis from the third quarter of the thirteenth century further distinguishes multiple permutations of ligatures and admits the semibrevis rhomboid note , rather than the brevis, as the syllable-bearing note. Monsabert: Dom Besse. Risques et urbanisme PDF Online. Nostredame described another troubadour, Ancelme de Mostiere, as a rich citizen of fourteenth-century Avignon, an astrologer, and a ' repute savant en matiere d'anciennes proprieties'. Lost medieval sources with music 24 1.
I realized a proper answer would require a historiography which included writers and readers, players and listeners outside official historical turf. That is basically how this book came into being, as a rather long answer to a simple question. It is not a definitive answer, neither is it the only possible one, and I hope that it will receive further refinements. As Hans-Robert Jauss, one of the founders of Rezeptionkritik, has argued: 4 A literary work is not an object that stands by itself and that offers the same view to each reader in each period.
It is much more like an orchestration that strikes ever new resonances among its readers and that frees the text from the material of the words and brings it to a contemporary audience. The text therefore differs with each group of readers; history shapes literature.
Another eminent reception theorist, Wolfgang Iser, has written of the text as an event', 5 a simile which, if perhaps striking in a strictly literary context, actually better fits musical texts, which are usually intended for, or at least imagined as, performances. Reception theory is especially pertinent to the field of medieval music. One of the characteristics of medieval texts is their prediliction for different interpretations of a single work, or what one writer has called, in a term which has unfortunately nearly become a cliche, mouvance.
Add to this the dis- tance of the Middle Ages, its continuing lore in contemporary life, and the evanescence of ancient musical traditions, and we have in received medieval song a treasure of multiple and contrasting horizons of expectations. One might even say that reader-response theory arises naturally from medieval art. For example, early medievalist Lacurne de Sainte-Palaye expressed a similar insight when he noted that medieval romances varied according to the royal audience which the narrator was seeking to please, and that this was also a feature of similar works closer to his time such as La Princesse de Cleves which pandered to Louis XIV by evoking the glory days of Henri III.
For some time already, reception theory has infiltrated musicology, where, as Mark Everist has pointed out, it has tended in its worst moments to reproduce uncritically journalistic criticism of famous works. Already in the s, Arnold Schmitz was distin- guishing between the 'real' Beethoven and his mythical, Romantic image; henceforth, it was necessary to strip the latter away to reveal the former.
The real Beethoven became elusive, always filtered through and perhaps even just the sum total of his various receptions.
So dependent has this composer become on his reception that Scott Burnham has recently dared suggest that 'perhaps Beethoven will go out of fashion for the next two hundred years'. If this is the case in the relatively short span from Beethoven's death to our time, how much more for repertoires which have experienced over years of reception? The change in the musical interpretation of Beethoven's music pales by comparison to that of troubadour and trouvere song, where two different receptions can sometimes lead to two very dif- ferent works, as illustrated throughout this book.
While Beethoven's music will more than likely be heard in one shape or the other several hundred years from now, entire medieval works, such as many troubadour songs or trouvere refrains, are forever lost. Other music, such as certain lais attached to the Tristan and Isolde story, whose power we are told in their time was so great that it brought performer and audience to tears, are now practically ignored even though about a dozen survive. To be sure, scholars in all fields of medieval music have long been concerned with its interpretation, but this has usually been confined to a preface in the context of a study on the repertoire in question.
It is no wonder that forays into medieval music reception in the s have begun with plainchant, and have focused on one of the most colourful periods of its historiography, the nineteenth century. The troubadour and trouvere repertoires offer singular advantages in developing a reception of medieval music. First, they are much smaller repertoires than chant, and therefore manageable in a single study which proposes to survey eight centuries.
They are also limited geographically; a good deal of my study concerns mainly French writers and readers. By their 4 Eight Centuries of Troubadours and Trouveres very vernacular nature, these songs are therefore more explicitly connected to nationalistic causes. At the same time, the two different repertoires offer clear geographic and nationalistic contrasts which a single body of music might not. For instance, the 'querelle des troubadours et trouveres' discussed in chapter 3 pits north against south and puts into clear focus the importance of French regional disputes for the historiography of music in a way not found in plainchant of that same period.
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The reception of these repertoires also offers idiosyncratic problems which differ from those of plainchant. For example, the historiography of trouvere songs is interconnected with that of vernacular polyphony; this relationship leads to particular inter- pretations of troubadour and trouvere song, from Enlightenment trouvere harmonizations to early Romantic interpretations according to mensural principles.
It is not enough just to say, as one interlocutor recently put it to me, that 'well, everyone just interpreted trouvere music differently at different times'. That may be true, but it is a mere suggestion of a story which is, I think, worth knowing in its full details.
The web of receptions of these fascinating medieval repertoires has long deserved a closer scrutiny than previously granted. As I have already suggested, I see nationalism as playing a definitive role in the reception of French vernacular monophony. If defined as 'loyalty to.
But if we define nationalism more broadly as certain groups' 'specific sentiment of solidarity in the face of other groups', 16 then it is a force which existed long before this time. In conclusion, I must confess to having entered my topic in an unusual and even incorrect way.
As one German scholar told me recently, 'I thought these sorts of things one saved for later on in one's career as a medievalist'. He was right of course, and the recent spate of medieval music reception literature confirms this: Anna Maria Busse Berger, Daniel Leech- Wilkinson and Elizabeth Aubrey are just a few whose study of medieval music reception Introduction 5 was prompted by first reading these interpretations as secondary literature on a primary topic. That is to say, the reception is the music. My reception narrative takes place for the most part in times outside the Middle Ages, where there is more talk of printed notes and piano accompaniments than scribes or harps.
But the former have much more to do with our Middle Ages than we often care to admit. Medieval music comes to all of us first as an impres- sion, unacknowledged or not, and that impression is the result of a lengthy reception process. I have written this book first to understand my own impressions of medieval music. If I have wandered away from the Middle Ages for a time, I hope to have returned equipped with a clearer sense of those many things which for me constitute the music of the troubadours and trouveres.
NOTES 1. However, Switten's is a sweeping historiography limited to mostly academic reception, and encompassing both literary and musical aspects of monophonic and polyphonic French repertoires up until the fourteenth century. Jahrhunderts und einer Transkriptionsgeschichte des europdischen Minnesangs Peter Lang , vol.
Paul Zumthor, Essai de poetique medievale Paris: Seuil, Jean-Baptiste de Lacurne de Sainte-Palaye, Memoires sur I'ancienne cheva- lerie, consideree comme un etablissement politique et militaire Paris: Duchesne, , vol. Iser's similar comments on eighteenth-century writer Laurence Sterne in his Act of Reading, Fink, ; and Jauss, Toward an Aesthetic, chapter 3.
Everist, 'Reception Theories', Already in the late s, Carl Dahlhaus could write of the upsurge of interest in reception history; see his Foundations of Music History, trans. Robinson Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , Dummler, See for example, chapter 4, note 6. See K. Troubadour chansonnier R, fol. Walter Odington, De speculatione musice 1 Sometime in the last three decades of the thirteenth century, two medieval scribes sat down to write the melody for the song 'Pour conforter ma pesance' by Thibaut IV count of Champagne and king of Navarre, then some thirty years deceased.